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1 year ago

Sarno catchment basin maps were generated

In the Sarno basin, human activities have significantly impacted the riverine A 582941 and the water quality of the Gulf of Naples. The first attempt of Sarno River decontamination was in 1973 with the Special Project 3 (SP3) sponsored by Cassa del Mezzogiorno, a public body that was created to support the development of southern Italy. The purpose of this attempt was to restore good environmental conditions in the Gulf of Naples after a violent cholera epidemic; this restoration was primarily achieved through wastewater management. Thus, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the relative wastewater collection system were built. After approximately 40 years and 700 Million €, wastewater is still of great concern ( Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry, 2006).
Currently, few scientific papers exist regarding the Sarno River. These studies have investigated environmental riverine issues (Arienzo et al., 2001), as well as the neighbouring lands (Adamo et al., 2003), discussing hydrogeological conditions (De Pippo et al., 2008) or health risks that are associated with living near first law of thermodynamics (conservation) river (Motta et al., 2008 and Vigliotta et al., 2010). A comprehensive evaluation of environmental criticisms, their origin and future trends on this “not-to-be followed” example of the worst way a European river can be managed is currently missing.

1 year ago

Also incidentally the existence of trends in the time

The annual mean PM10 concentrations were calculated from the daily average values, and ranged from 8.5 μg m− 3 (Izki in 2010) to 46.0 μg m− 3 (Nautica in 2006), whereas the averages for the whole period ranged from 10.8 μg m− 3 (Izki) to 35.1 μg m− 3 (Zelaieta). Maxima of the daily average concentrations in the period ranged from 46.0 μg m− 3 (Valderejo) to 209 μg m− 3 (Arrasate).

1 year ago

During the third spike of caffeine alone

The difference in removal efficiency observed between the two units immediately after the second spike and during the third spike may also be related to the different microbial communities present within the two schmutzdeckes. The removal of total coliforms progressively decreased within the schmutzdecke of unit B1 simultaneous to the decrease of Bacteroidetes and the increase of Gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, the drop in bacterial removal observed in unit B2 was less severe. During this NH125 period, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla. At the end of the study, low bacterial removal was observed in both schmutzdeckes, and was associated with the extremely low amount of Bacteroidetes (< 2%).
Methanol was used to prepare the stock solutions of carbamazepine, E1, E2, gemfibrozil and phenazone, while water was used to prepare the stock solution of caffeine. The presence of methanol during the first two spikes represented an additional carbon source in the feed water. During the second spike in which the six PhACs were simultaneously added, methanol represented the primary carbon source. A limited impact of methanol on the microbial community was expected during the first spike in which only caffeine and E2 were added as well as during the third spike in which only caffeine was added.

1 year ago

Raman spectra of carbon samples exhibited the characteristic peaks

The FT-IR spectra of all carbons samples (Fig. 1) exhibited the typical bands of carbonyl groups (CO, CO, near 1700 cm−1) and characteristic peaks of incompletely carbonised materials, near 1580 cm−1 attributable (CC) to aromatic ring modes with varied absorbance. The structural difference of these proteinaceous BMS 193885 derived materials from the typical carbohydrate or sugar based catalysts were apparent from the presence of the nitrile band near ∼2360 cm−1 and a broad phosphate band between 1300 and 900 cm−1 due to incorporation of N and P into AC structures during carbonisation [29] and [30]. The sharper CO bands for hydrothermally prepared MACHT and carbon samples obtained from J cake (JAC, JACS) in comparisons to those obtained by activation of M and P cakes were in accord with their functionalized surface structures. While, the increased CO band intensity of MACH2SO4 as compared to MAC confirmed the formation of weak acid groups like COOH along with SO3H by oxidising effect of conc. H2SO4 on MAC surface and in good agreement with the trends found in literature (Fig. 1(b)), in contrast sulfonation by 4-BDS did not cause any such changes in CO band intensity (Fig. 1(a)) [4], [10] and [13]. Also, the success of sulfonation process and presence SO3H and PhSO3H groups on the surface of sulfonated carbons was confirmed by the emergence additional bands at 1110–1118 cm−1 and 1003–1018 cm−1 (SO stretching), 1171–1175 cm−1 and 1267–1270 cm−1 (stretching in SO3H) in the FT-IR spectra of these materials [9], [18], [20] and [25].

1 year ago

Titania quantification Quercetin activity assay Results

2.4. Decyl functionalization of Stöber particles (SP-D)
SP-D particles were prepared using WAY 207024 modified version of Berlier\'s method [15]. In anhydrous toluene (30 mL), prepared SPs (1 g) were added and sonicated for 15 min. This solution was refluxed (∼110 °C) under vigorous mixing and D-TEOS (0.8 mL) was added. This solution was refluxed for 8 h followed by centrifugation to recover the particles. Particles were washed 3 times in ethanol (20 mL) with repeated vortexing and centrifugation followed by drying overnight at 80 °C.
2.5. Materials characterization
2.6. Quercetin adsorption isotherms
2.7. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
TGA was used to determine the quantity of grafted decyl groups on the surface of silica nanoparticles. A TA Instruments (New Castle, DE) Q600 was used under nitrogen flow with approximately 3 mg of sample and a ramp rate 10 °C/min from 30° C to 700° C. Particles were first stabilized at 100 °C for 10 min prior to the ramp to drive off any remaining solvent residue. The mass loss between 435 °C and 700 °C was calculated for SP and SP-D materials individually and the difference in mass loss between these samples was associated with the decomposition of the decyl functional groups.

1 year ago

These theoretical studies presented the

Artificial photosynthesis represents the photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen with the help of solar light and appropriate photocatalyst [1] and [2]. The vision of efficient and low cost water splitting CD 1530 is still far from an economically viable solution, mainly due to the non-availability of semiconductor materials, possessing high PEC activity and chemical stability under harsh conditions [3] and [4]. To improve the PEC properties of existing metal oxide semiconductors different approaches have been adopted as documented in a large number of publications [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. Among various n-type metal oxides, TiO2 and Fe2O3 have attracted substantial attention due to their low cost, high abundance and stability under oxidative conditions [10] and [11]. In this context, another promising material is WO3, which was comparatively less favored due to the fact that the conduction band of WO3 is not sufficiently negative to cause the reduction of hydrogen without an external bias voltage [12]. Augustynski et al. and others have shown that nanostructuring of WO3 anodes can optimize the electron transport pathways and electrode–electrolyte interface, which effectively extends the electrochemical activity and light-harvesting properties [5] and [13]. The preparation of WO3 films by different techniques such as sol–gel, CVD, PVD and anodization (Table 1) have shown that water-splitting properties of WO3 photoanodes is largely influenced by morphology, microstructure and phase composition as well as contact area between the film and charge collector.

1 year ago

We have mentioned in Section

Fig. 2 shows the emission spectra of Fe3O4@MCM-41@R6 turbid solution (5 mg in 10 mL phosphate buffered saline, λex = 520 nm) under various Hg(II) concentrations. It is observed that the emission intensity at 571 nm is rather weak in the absence of Hg(II) ions, suggesting that most of the grafted probe TIC10 take the non-emissive spirolactam structure. In the presence of Hg(II) ions, the emission intensity at 571 nm becomes stronger, showing an obvious emission “off-on” effect towards Hg(II) ions.

1 year ago

Theory of the proposed methods

Pure samples were kindly supplied by Epico Pharmaceutical Industry, Cairo, Egypt. AM purity was found to be 100.56 ± 0.945 by high performance liquid chromatographic method [4] while AT purity was 100.96 ± 1.210 by non aqueous titration method [4].
Pharmaceutical formulations
Amlokind-AT tablet dosage forms; labeled to contain 5 mg (AM)/50 mg (AT); batch number A2AFN160 manufactured by Mankind Pharma, India.

1 year ago

In this study the polyaniline emeraldine salt

Fig. 5. FTIR patterns of PABNTs (A) and PASNTs (B) before and after adsorption. (A).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 6. (A) Effect of solution R 428 on PFOS and PFOA removal. 10 mg of adsorbent and 50 mL of 500 mg/L aqueous PFOS or PFOA solutions were used at 307 K. (■ for the adsorption of PFOS on PASNTs, for the adsorption of PFOA on PASNTs.) (B) Zeta potentials of PASNTs. (C) The possible mechanism of the adsorption of PFOS on PASNTs.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The effect of temperature on PFOS and PFOA adsorption to PANTs was investigated in a temperature range of 288–318 K, and the results were shown in Fig. 7. It could be observed that the adsorption amount of PFOS and PFOA onto PANTs increased as the temperature went up, which indicated the adsorption was an endothermic process. The endothermic adsorption appeared to be an uncommon behavior; however, several authors have reported endothermic adsorption of PFOS and PFOA on different types of adsorbents [34], [35] and [48]. The enhancement in the adsorption capacity as temeperature went up may be due to the chemical interaction between adsorbates and adsorbent, creation of some new adsorption sites or the increased rate of intraparticle diffusion adsorbates into the pores of the adsorbent at higher temperatures [49]. Thus, the high temperature is in favor of the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA on PANTs.

1 year ago

Characterization of nanoparticle size distributions and ligand dose calculations

In summary, in the present work we have illustrated that laser treated graphene oxide shows an excellent adsorption capacity towards methylene blue dye in water. In particular, it AZD8055 was found that controlling different parameters during the laser irradiation time it is possible to obtain GO sheets with different degrees of reduction, which could enhance more or less the removal of MB. We observed that both GO and rGO are excellent adsorbents towards MB and we noticed that rGO-30 has a higher adsorption capacity than GO. The enhancement observed for moderately irradiated GO is mainly due to its different morphology. In particular, endotherms was found that the laser treated GO revealed a discontinuous surface where some holes have been detected contributing to an increase of the available rGO surface area (higher adsorption capacity). In our previous work [50], we reported that upon laser ablation it is possible to obtain sheets of porous graphene in a way similar to the coal gasification mechanism. In particular, sp3 carbon atoms of the GO sheet react with H2O vapour, originated during the laser irradiation, which lead to the formation of CO and CO2 molecules, which leave behind a distribution of carbon vacancies and creating nanopores.